The European Federation of Psychology Students’ Associations (EFPSA) was established in 1987, at the first International Congress of Psychology Students in Portugal. EFPSA represents a highly diverse network of psychology students working on a voluntary basis by and for psychology students of Europe. The Federation currently consists of 33 psychology Member Organisations and three Observer Organisation.
Before becoming Members of EFPSA, students’ organisations go through the process of, initially, becoming observers – this allows the organisations to get familiar with the structure, working practices and current state of the organisation. Upon year of being elected as observers, the students’ organisations may apply to become Members of EFPSA.
If you have any questions, please contact the Member Representatives Officer, Martina Marie Aquilina on email@example.com.
List of Members
PLAST (Plattform StudentInnen im BÖP) is a group of psychology students who are members of the professional organisation of Austrian psychologists (BÖP, Berufsverband österreichischer PsychologInnen). Our national organisation consists of an executive board (active members who support in organising events) and further ordinary members.
Our main goals are networking, orientation and identification. We aim to connect psychology students on a national and international level as well as with professionals from different psychological disciplines, forward information regarding (advanced) training in psychology and give psychology students the possibility to attend events organised by PLAST and BÖP.
The membership includes the subscription of the journal “Psychologie in Österreich” (Psychology in Austria) and the attendance of local events organised by our NO (approx. 10 per year). We currently offer workshops for students writing their thesis and support workshops on statistics.
Further activities to expand our network are currently in the pipeline – stay tuned!
Young Psychologists Public Union was established by the initiative of Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University’s psychology students in April, 2009. Young Psychologists Public Union involves several universities’ students from different psychology departments and started working with seminars and meetings on various psychological subjects. After that union realised various projects such as “Psychological help to the Deaf Children”, “Young Psychologist School” and etc. Young Psychologists Public Union consist 7 universities from Azerbaijan including more than five hundred students and young psychologists.
J. Nuttin founded the ‘psychologische kring’ in 1945. It is an organisation run by psychology students on a voluntary basis. The main aim is to defend the interests of psychology students at our university and to provide them with opportunities to meet up with each other on a wide range of social and cultural events. Besides that the organisation is part of LOKO, the bigger association in Leuven where most of the student organisations from our city fall under.
Mission: to defend the interests of psychology students at our university and to provide them with the opportunities to meet up with each other on a wide range of social and cultural events.
Vision: We want to be there for the psychology students in Leuven, support them in building the psychology of the future and with them we want to be proud of our growing identity as psychologists. We want to offer them qualitative, dynamic and responsive services. We want to have an open and approachable board. We want to do this through active and passive feedback and communication, through easy accessible activities, intrinsic motivation, an effective organisation structure and good cooperation.
The Association of Psychology Students “SINAPSA” was established in 2011 to represent and support psychology students in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). All undergraduate and postgraduate students of psychology registered in Bosnia and Herzegovina can become memebers. At the moment the Assiociation has 110 members. The main aim of the Association is to provide additional support to psychology students in the country by offering additional educational opportunities in form of lectures, trainings and chances for practical implementation of the acquired knowledge. In other words, SINAPSA was founded in order to generate direct positive impact on the personal and professional development of B&H psychology students, which will consequently initiate the positive changes in the state of the B&H psychology profession in general. Through its operations SINAPSA aims to connect the students with the academic community and professionals who regularly take part in events organised by the Assiociation. Moreover, one of the main strategic goals recognized by the SINAPSA’s founders and members has been to provide psychology students with the networking opportunities that enable them to meet their peers, not only from other B&H cities, but also from other countries in the region and Europe. Since its establishment SINAPSA has successfully implemented a range of different activities for its members and psychology students in general, including the educational sessions on some of the most relevant and up to date topics, study visits and parcipation in the events of regional character that were organised by fellow associations. SINAPSA cooperates with local and state NGOs, cultural institutions, social welfare, schools, etc. who find the participation of psychology students significant, and closely cooperates with the Association of Psychologists in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and their affiliates of the Sarajevo.
CYPSA is a professional and scientific Psychological Association in Cyprus. It is an association that looks after the interests of all psychologists, protects and promotes psychological science.
• CYPSA provides information on working as a psychologist or with a psychologist in Cyprus.
• It is a communication forum for psychologists
• It assists on legal and practical matters regarding the exercise of the psychological profession
• CYPSA is well informed on developments within psychology in Europe and shares this information with the local community.
Our general objectives are:
• to promote psychology in Cyprus
• to serve psychologists’ social and professional interests
• to provide members with a platform for the exchange of knowledge and experience/expertise
Foreign psychologists and students wishing to work or study in Cyprus can contact CYPSA directly. Regarding students, CYPSA has connections in all local universities offering accredited psychology degrees (UCY, UNIC, EUC, NUP, and UCLan Cyprus).
Psychological Czech Association of Students (Psychocas) is a non-profit organisation ran on a voluntary basis by and for psychology students. It was created by students who want to give other students the opportunity to realise their ideas in various projects and events.
To achieve its aims, Psychocas cooperates with CMPS (The Czech-Moravian Psychological Society), UPA CR (The Union of Psychologists Associations in the Czech Republic), and CAPPO (Czech Association of Work and Organizational Psychologists).
The organisation helps to connect all psychology students in the Czech Republic. Its aim is to improve the study conditions and to help improve the quality of education. Psychocas creates various opportunities for psychology students by providing excursions, organising qualification courses, international exchanges, connecting with professional organisations, etc.
The highlight of the year is the annual conference. Every conference has a different topic on where numerous lectures, workshops, and poster presentations are held by students and professionals in the field. Moreover, Psychocas organises and supports various projects, such as the "Buddy Project" (a project for the first years, which aims primarily to help with orientation in the new environment and to integrate into the collective of other students successfully), "Introspect" (Psychology Student Journal), "Summer coaching school", "Psychotalks" (regular lectures with interesting psychological topics intended for the public), etc.
Dansk Psykolog Forenings Studentersektion (DPS) – in English, The Danish Psychology Students Association, is managed by the National Organisation (NO), which is elected each year at the annual general assembly. The NO consists of 4 LOs (1 LO from each university in the country). Each LO has its own president. Two of the 4 LO presidents gets elected as the president and vice-president of the NO and thereby represents the Danish students in the board of the Danish Psychology Association. Overall, DPS works to promote the professional and student political interests of the students. We also work to promote the cooperation between DPS and the remaining four of the associations plus the contact between the students among the universities of the country.
EPSA, the Estonian Psychology Students’ Association, or EPSÜ in Estonian, was called into action in 1992. It represents all current and past Psychology students in Estonia. Presently Psychology is taught in two universities in Estonia. The goal of EPSA is to unite Psychology students into a single organisation, to improve the quality of psychology curricula in our country, to collaborate with other organisations, and to introduce scientific Psychology to the society. By organising annual congresses, workshops, meetings with working psychologists and other specialists (e.g. lawyers), we try to provide students with useful contacts and information which will hopefully help them become more aware of their future work field and commence collaboration with each other at the first opportunity.
Suomen Psykologian Opiskelijoiden Liitto (SPOL), or The Finnish Psychology Students’ Association (FPSA), was founded in 1968 and currently represents psychology students in Finland. The board consists of 12 members, 2 from each of the 6 local psychology student organisations. Every member of the local organisations is a member of SPOL. The main purpose of SPOL is to function as a platform for cooperation and communication between the Local Organisations, to defend and represent the students’ interests and to organise national events for its members. The annual events can be both scientific and social in their nature. SPOL has extensive representation in all relevant psychological bodies, including the Board of Management of the Finnish Psychological Association.
The Association of German Professional Psychologists (BDP) offers memberships for students which are organised through “Studierende im BDP”, the German Member Organization in EFPSA.
We are currently representing approximately 2000 students – a number that grows constantly.
Being part of the professional organisation members greatly benefit from knowledge transfer, professional advice for career planning, business start-up and on assurance policies as well as legal advice.
Our professional organisation has an own academy, publishing house & university/college.
Members receive a magazine “Report Psychologie” 11 times a year & a regular newsletter. There is an online-platform for job offers, too.
The students section also sends a newsletter every 6 weeks to student members & publishes additional information on its website. Members can contact us through a service email address any time for questions and advice. Furthermore, we stay in contact with the departments of psychology students throughout Germany and their general assemblies.
Since early 2013 we organize national workshop-weekends throughout the year each for about 120 participants. Aiming at a practical approach & application on topics that are not necessarily taught at the faculties these workshops also connect students with professionals, create a network for the participants and provide a valuable insight into our future profession.
Greek psychology students association (GPSA) was established in 2006. GPSA has its head quarters in Athens, and accepts every person to become a member, provided they are studying in one of the four psychology departments in Greece. The board of management consists of four people who meet once a month in Athens or via Skype meetings. The NO’s President, the Vice President who is also the EFPSA’s Member Representative, the Secretary General and the Financial Administrator. As a student association we aim to collaborate with other student organisations, we cooperate with professors in conferences and congresses where we focus on cheaper participation fees for our members. Through the website, the facebook page and the mailing list, we try to keep our members updated about every psychology related event. Finally, we promote every EFPSA event and motivate our members to take part.
The Hungarian Psychological Association (MPT) is one of Hungary’s oldest scientific associations founded in 1928. The Association aims at organising and developing scientific life, education, research, and application of psychology in Hungary. Also, its mission is to inform its members about ongoing discussions, events, and trends of their profession. The Association plays an active part in the continuing education of Hungarian professionals, the distribution of psychological knowledge to the general public, as well as in developing and maintaining international relationships.
MPT IT is an autonomic Department of MPT, but also a big help at organising events and cooperating with students and psychologists in Hungary. IT is a good opportunity for students and young psychologists to be an active part of the professional organization of psychologists in Hungary.
The goal of MPT IT is to make psychology known and understandable for everyday people and to help psychology students in the orientation process in the world of psychology. MPT IT provides its selected members with great opportunities, such as skill-developing trainings, lectures of professionals and workshops. MPT IT is represent at all MPT events, and at almost all bigger Hungarian psychology events and festivals.
The PSI Student Affairs Group (SAG) was established in 2008 to represent and support psychology students in Ireland. SAG is a division of the Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI), the professional body for psychology in Ireland which provides accreditation for 3rd level psychology courses of sufficient quality. Members of receive a copy of the Irish Psychologist each month, access to the Irish Journal of Psychology, access to job advertisements and other useful information through our mailing list and official google group, protection by the society’s ethics code and opportunities to join special interest groups within the PSI as well as access to the many fantastic events organised and supported by SAG. These include presentation workshops, guest lectures, the careers fair, the Student Congress and the recently launched A Day in the Life Series. These lectures are focused on a particular branch of psychology and consist of a professional and a student describing the lived experience of working in that branch of psychology.
The Kosovar Association of Psychology Students – KOAPS represents all psychology students of the University of Prishtina. It was founded on 2001 with the aim of: improving conditions of studying and lectures, improving the living conditions, standards and basic rights of students, commitment in research work and professional impeccability, advancement of psychology as a profession, contribution in the modern development of University of Prishtina, assistance of students in specific situations, and other issues as necessary. To fulfill its aspiration the association initiates activities such as organising lectures, sessions, professional meetings as well as all other necessary means for implementing work, the organisation of publishing and informative activity, organising of cultural, entertaining and recreational activities, execution of cooperation with international psychology students and their proper structures, collaboration with educational institutions, elaboration of other activities that are in accordance with the aspirations and principles of association’s work amongst others.
Lithuanian psychology students' association (LiPSA) is a national, socially active organisation, representing and uniting Lithuanian psychology students from six universities in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda. LiPSA was officially established in 2004 right after the EFPSA Congress, where the Lithuanian delegation participated for the first time. Before then, there only existed separate active local groups of psychology students in universities. After the merge we have grown and have become stronger with each year. We seek to become the largest organisation in Lithuania that fosters future psychology professionals and would like to form a psychologically aware and literate society. Our mission is to represent all psychology students and educate the society on psychological matters by expanding our competencies. We actively cooperate with other student NGOs in Lithuania and have a close connection with the Lithuanian psychological association (LPS).
The Alep was founded in 1998. Given that Luxembourg is a rather small country and that it had no real university until 2002 Luxembourgers were forced to study abroad. As this is still the case, one of the main goals of the ALEP is to link Luxembourgish psychology students all over the world, psychology students at the university of Luxembourg and the Association of Luxembourgish Psychologists (SLP). Our organisation is quite dynamic; consisting of a committee board of which our president is the chairman. Each committee member has a specific task such as maintaining the link to the national psychology association. Nevertheless we are flexible and each year our committee is renewed, some people leave our organisation (also because they finish their studies) while other people join it. In this manner we can respond to the current demands in the world of psychology.
Betapsi is an organisation which represents all Maltese Psychology students. It aims to ensure that their rights and interests are safeguarded and acts as the bridge between Psychology students and the Psychology Department. Betapsi also endeavours to work towards the enhancement of the Psychology profession within the Maltese society. Moreover, Betapsi provides the appropriate scenario of working and studying opportunities to students who want to further their career in Psychology. It is the place where students can build a strong network during and after their years at University. Throughout the year, Betapsi organises a host of activities which appeal to all students. It especially invites Psychology undergraduates to participate and to be actively involved in all the events and projects which the organisation undertakes.
SPS-NIP is the Dutch national psychology students’ association, established in 1981, and its main goal is to bring psychology students closer to their professional future in the field of psychology. With a regional board in every university city, and a national board (in Utrecht), SPS-NIP operates nationally. It is part of the Dutch professional institute of Psychologists, and has around 125 active members, who organise more than 100 activities per year, locally and nationally. Examples are congresses, network activities, exchanges, lectures and workshops. Members can also use an exclusive internship platform, or ask for career advice from a professional advisor. SPS-NIP looks after the interests of psychology students by keeping contact with other local psychology students’ associations and with study directors of each university. On the international level, SPS-NIP provides international internships, organizes activities for international students and is a member of EFPSA.
PSA “Psihesko” is the First Macedonian Psychology Students’ Association founded in 2014 at the faculty of Philosophy, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius University” in Skopje. Our vision is to promote psychology as an academic field and improve the knowledge of the psychology students and the youth in Macedonia by organising informal educational activities and breaking the prejudice about psychology. Consequently, with more than 70 active members over the past 2 years, Psihesko, by organizing many training courses, educational events and research activities on various topics, has managed to start paving the way for future psychology students in Macedonia.
Given the fact that EFPSA is the biggest association of psychology students in Europe, we were eager to take the challenge and become part of the wide spread network of psychology minds aiming to improve the strength of this psychology students platform.
We feel honoured to have become an Observer member in EFPSA, and given a new, open minded, culturally diverse approach that will lead to a better professional and personal development to our members as individuals, as well as to our society that lacks the understanding of psychology as a humanitarian science.
Therefore, we plan on engaging in EFPSA’s activities, keep on promoting the EFPSA spirit among our members by participating at EFPSA events, keep our members updated for all the upcoming challenges via our social media pages, email , meetings and of course by organising an unforgettable EFPSA day at our university!
The Norwegian Psychological Association (NPF) has over 7000 members (including students). This accounts for approximately 90 percent of the total number of registered professional psychologists in Norway. Our members have at least 6½ years university education and training in Psychology. The Norwegian Psychological Association functions both as a trade union and an independent political body. As a trade union NPF safeguards its member’s financial, political and professional interests. As an independent political entity NPF involves itself in matters concerning a wide range of professional issues, such as national health policy, psychological services, science & educational policies.
The mission of the Polish Association of Psychology Students and Graduates is to integrate the psychological society, to promote psychological scientific knowledge and to contribute to the Polish society in means of its growth. Polish Students and Graduates of Psychology Association was founded in 1997 (officially registered in 1998) in Warsaw. The idea was born at the Warsaw University and rapidly attracted students from other universities in Poland. There are a few projects we are involved in and can be proud of. Members from The Wroclaw University organise ‘Day of Psychology’ and ‘Mobile Museum of Psychology’ thanks to which, the knowledge of psychology among city residents expands. Students from The Gdańsk University came up with the idea of Psycho Tram which promotes psychology through the activities that bring a lot of fun and joy. Members from The Poznań University invite famous and respected psychologists who give speeches about the areas of psychology that interest them most. There is also a well organised project of fairy tale therapy at University of Lodz, where the main aim is to help kids to deal with their problems in a constructive and creative way. The students from universities located in Warsaw launched the project “Psychotherapy in Practice”. They invite acclaimed psychotherapists that represent different schools in psychotherapy to give lectures about their everyday work.
ANEP (Associação Nacional de Estudantes de Psicologia), it’s the National Students’ Associtation of Portugal, established in 1988. There are, actually, 10 members elected by local psychology students’ associations, which have the power to vote during the general council of ANEP. Our main goal is to defend psychology students’ rights, to represent them and also, to create social and scientific events that may serve as opportunities to unite students from all over the country. Visit our Website to get to know more about it, or feel free to send us an email with any other questions.
Cognosis, or the Federation of Psychology and Educational Sciences Student’s Association was founded in 2006 under the initiative of a few enthusiastic students. Cognosis has a similar organisational structure to EFPSA, which means that it is formed by members which are part of local organizations, and its main aim is to support the students in their professional and personal growth. With this mission in mind, we are organising events and projects, that involve students both directly and indirectly. A General Assembly held twice a year, in witch multiple themes related to the future of Cognosis are discussed and voted upon. In order for this meeting to take place, every local organisation has to send a delegation team made of 5 members.
Our organizational structure is made of the General Assembly, Director Council, auditor, task force committees, active members, and alumni members. Our Director Council is made up of President, Vice-president, Human Resource Coordinator, Public Relations Coordinator, Finances Coordinator, Project Manager, Organizational Development Counselor, General Secretary and National Representative.
We are also trying to increase the number of active volunteers which are eager to get involved in projects and departments, while creating an environment in witch students can benefit both of personal and professional development. We aim to achieve this through various projects, like The Summer and Winter School, CNSP (our National Scientific Congress), Exchange and Mobility projects and many more.
USP “Stimulus” is a student association established in 2000 on the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade. It was founded in order to represent psychology students of its faculty, to promote psychology and “stimulate” students, professors and professionals to collaborate and improve psychology studies. The association is run on voluntary basis by around 12 psychology students. Throughout the year, it organizes acts of charity for unfortunate children and people, open-door information days for future students, lectures, round tables, movie nights, a scientific blog, student exchanges, and, since 2016, a student conference “Stimuluskup” which is a part of the "Empirical studies in psychology" regional conference.
USP “Stimulus” was a member of “Association of Psychology Students of Serbia”(“Savez Studenata Psihologije Srbije” or “SUSP”) before its disbandment. Since 2015, USP “Stimulus” is the sole member of EFPSA from Serbia.
Slovak Association of Psychology Students and Graduates/Slovenská asociácia študentov a absolventov psychológie (SAŠAP) is a non-profit civic association that was established in March 2009. It became a Member Organisation of EFPSA in May 2011. SAŠAP‘s mission is to connect students and graduates from various departments of psychology in Slovakia and hence to facilitate the exchange of information, experience and encourages cooperation and discussion. Therefore, it organises events for students and graduates (lectures, seminars, workshops, courses, conferences, summer schools, international exchanges and various types of international cooperation), conveys information about professional events held at home and abroad. It allows students to publish in its own journal E-mental.
Psychology Students’ Association of Slovenia (DŠPS) is a voluntary, non-profit, non-political association of students of psychology in Slovenia. The primary objectives of the association are to improve the quality and conditions of the psychology studies, the extension of studies with extracurricular activities, integration and collaboration of psychology students and international representation and cooperation with psychology students in Europe. The association was officially established in 1996 and it has developed into seven work groups: international relations, extracurricular activities, PR, magazine Panika, training office PsihoMOČ, winter/summer school group and website group.
The Spanish Organisation is known as Colectivo de Estudiantes de Psicología (CEP-PIE) and are members of it all the Spanish universities that teach Psychology, both private and public. Each University has two member representatives, and they have to attend to the meetings that are organised twice a year.
The MO of students cooperates with the “Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos”, that is the professional association, and also with the “Conferencia de Decanos”, that is formed by Deans of all the universities.
The Swedish Psychological Association is the trade union and professional association for psychologists, psychology students, and PhD in psychology and education in Sweden. It aims to ensure good conditions for practicing psychologists across Sweden, strives to raise awareness about the psychological profession and make psychological expertise accessible to the wider community as well as promote the development of psychology as a practice and a science.
The Swedish Psychological Association’s also enables student members to join the Association’s Student Council and functions as a platform where they can meet and network with students from other Swedish universities. The Student Council acts on behalf of students, enabling them to take part in the debate and decision-making process and ensuring their education meets an acceptable standard of quality
Members’ benefits include, but are not excluded to:
- Monthly subscription to the “Psychologist magazine”
- Information and legal counselling on matters concerning working conditions and rights, licence, clinical placements and other professional issues
- Access to psychology-themed events and lectures
- Right to attend and vote on the Psychological Association Congress, held every third year
- Discounts on health and casualty insurance
In May 2002, two Swiss psychology students (Markus & Sven) returned from the EFPSA Congress, fully motivated by EFPSA spirit and decided to build up a Swiss National Organisation – psyCH – which was founded in 2004. All the universities (7) and applied schools (2) in Switzerland which offer psychology are members of psyCH. The organisation is structured as follows: The p-team (one president, two vice-presidents), a person in charge of finances, one (or more) in charge of communication (keep in mind that Switzerland has 4 official languages, so translating documents/letters is quite a job), one MR, and several freelancers who help out wherever necessary. We are always in touch with our two POs. One important event and highlight in the psyCH-year is the annual national congress which lasts for one weekend in spring. Students from abroad are always welcome to participate! Check our web page for more info.
Turkish Psychology Students Working Group (TPOCG) was founded in 1995. Each member of TPOCG has been working actively to towards the fulfilment of the obectives of the organisation. The working system is really similar to EFPSA, which offers Exchange programs, travel networks, an online journal, a congress once in a year and two Executive Board meetings during each year. In the Exchange program, the students are provided free accommodation for a week and nearly 10 universities provide this chance to 5 students each semester. The congress lasts for 4 days and each year different universities become the hosts of the event. Each year approximately 1000 students attend the congress.
The British Psychological Society (BPS) was founded in 1901 as a professional body overseeing psychology and psychologist in the UK. The BPS is responsible for the development, promotion and application of pure and applied psychology for the public good. It is thought the many Members Networks that the BPS continues to support and promote psychology. Students on accredited undergraduate courses or postgraduate conversion courses can join the BPS as student members. You will automatically become a member of the Student Member Group and receive PsychTalk; a newsletter written by students for students. You will also receive a monthly magazine from BPS; The Psychologist. Members will also get access to job advertisements, journals and conferences and more.
List of Observer Countries
The PPSR (Psychologische en Pedagogische Studentenraad) is the official psychology and educational science students’ association of the University of Ghent in Belgium. Our main goal is to represent all the psychology and educational science students at our faculty. Here, students volunteer to cooperate with professors and faculty staff. Furthermore, we want to improve student life by organising enriching and fun activities with our sister organisation VPPK. This way we help with the development of professional skills and we provide network opportunities. Questions or collaboration proposals are always welcome, you can reach us via our E-mail or website.
A.P.E. inFo - Associazione Psicologi Europei in Formazione - is the first Psychology students association in Lombardy and one of the few in Italy.
It was founded in December of 2019 in Italy and recognised at the Catholic University of Sacred Heart (Milan). Currently, it counts more than 80 Associates and it is still expanding its number.
A.P.E. inFo offers itself as a reference point for those who study psychology, providing their associates with an added value for their professional growth in order to foster future integration in the working world.
The commitment moreover raising awareness of “living psychology because it is applied” through the creation and dissemination of quality content inherent to the world of psychology, acts as a bridge of knowledge between experts and those outside of the field. A bridge that constantly changes shape through the sharing of materials such as testimonials, interviews, popular articles, and insights in the communication channels of the association.
A.P.E. inFo believes that each person is a resource. The interaction between the Associates represents an opportunity of growth for the single and for the group and for anyone that comes in contact with it: a common human capital that grows because it is shared.
The National Federation of Psychology Students – FENEPSY, represents all psychology students in Schools and the University of France. It was founded in 2002 with the aim of training, defending, and representing Psychology students and their rights and interests by working on issues inherent in their training. FENEPSY helps students through congress, training weekend, meetings, press releases, and contributions with improving the conditions of studying. Further, they are improving their living conditions, the advancement of psychology as a profession, and assisting students in specific situations.
There are 33 universities offering psychology courses/majors. At present, FENEPSY is composed of 12 active members and 22 associations. Each association is represented by two administrators. This is the only association whereby half of the members can be psychological students. Those associations have to be politically independent, union independent, and denominational independent. Lastly, only the administrators can vote.